At City of Hope, we are actively developing tomorrow’s treatment protocols today for testicular cancer. As a patient at City of Hope, you have a highly experienced and dedicated team to treat you and help you cope with a cancer diagnosis.
As one of a select group of institutes to attain the elite designation of Comprehensive Cancer Center by the National Cancer Institute, City of Hope is acknowledged as a leader in cancer research and treatment. At City of Hope, patients have access to a team of nationally renowned specialists, state-of-the-art surgical techniques and innovative therapies, many of which are unavailable elsewhere.
Testicular cancer patients receive the most personalized care possible, allowing them to recover faster, with fewer side effects. Because City of Hope concentrates experts in all cancer-related specialties in one location, patients receive greater continuity of care and more coordinated treatment planning. Our multidisciplinary team includes urologists, medical oncologists, radiation oncologists and surgical oncologists working cooperatively to create the most effective treatment plan and optimize outcomes.
Dramatic advances in the treatment of testicular cancer make it one of the most treatable of all cancers, with an overall cure rate of more than 95 percent.
Testicular cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of one or both testicles.
The testicles are two egg-shaped glands located inside the scrotum (a sac of loose skin that lies directly below the penis). The testicles are held within the scrotum by the spermatic cord, which also contains the vas deferens and vessels and nerves of the testicles.
The testicles are the male sex glands and produce testosterone and sperm. Germ cells within the testicles produce immature sperm that travel through a network of tubules (tiny tubes) and larger tubes into the epididymis (a long coiled tube next to the testicles) where the sperm mature and are stored.
Almost all testicular cancers start in the germ cells.
•The two main types of testicular germ cell tumors are seminomas and nonseminomas.
•These two types grow and spread differently and are treated differently.
◦Nonseminomas tend to grow and spread more quickly than seminomas.
◦Seminomas are more sensitive to radiation. A testicular tumor that contains both seminoma and nonseminoma cells is treated as a nonseminoma.
Testicular cancer is the most common cancer in men 20 to 35 years old.
Certain factors can increase the risk of developing testicular cancer, including:
•Undescended testicle (cryptorchidism) - Normally, the testicles descend from inside the abdomen into the scrotum before birth. The risk of testicular cancer is increased in males with a testicle that does not move down into the scrotum. This risk does not change even after surgery to move the testicle into the scrotum. The increased risk applies to both testicles.
•Congenital abnormalities - Men born with abnormalities of the testicles, penis or kidneys, as well as those with inguinal hernia (hernia in the groin area, where the thigh meets the abdomen), may be at increased risk.
•History of testicular cancer - Men who have had testicular cancer are at increased risk of developing cancer in the other testicle.
•Family history of testicular cancer - The risk for testicular cancer is greater in men whose brother or father has had the disease.
Possible signs of testicular cancer include swelling or discomfort in the scrotum.
These and other symptoms may be caused by testicular cancer. Other conditions may cause the same symptoms. A doctor should be consulted if any of the following problems occur:
•A painless lump or swelling in either testicle
•A change in how the testicle feels
•A dull ache in the lower abdomen or the groin
•A sudden build-up of fluid in the scrotum
•Pain or discomfort in a testicle or in the scrotum